I now have this problem solved to my complete satisfaction with Chrome sync + multiple users.
On both my work and personal computers, I have two users in Chrome: Work (synced with my work account) and Personal (synced with my personal account), with a different icon in the upper right so I can tell which one I'm in. If I encounter something in one browser that I'd prefer to access in the other, I dump it into the bookmark bar---usually actually a specific queue folder.
Caveats: this is for people whose employers are more or less reasonable. Only sync your personal Chrome data to your work computer if you trust your boss (because if someone else can snoop in your computer account, they can snoop through your synced Chrome data), and only sync your work Chrome data to your personal computer if your employer is cool with it.